Association of different refractive errors with literacy level.

Lala Rukh, Muhammad Suhail Sarwar


BACKGROUND: Refractive errors are considered public health problem and most common human disorders with a considerable economic and health impact. An increasing trend in prevalence rate of refractive errors is due to environmental factors such as progressively more competitive education system, increased educational level and different occupation. People with higher educational level and low socioeconomic conditions are considered at high risk of myopia.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of different refractive errors with literacy level and to investigate which type of refractive error is more common as duration of education increases.

PATIENTS AND METHOD: Patients visiting Eye OPD Mayo Hospital Lahore, refraction room having refractive errors were examined.100 patients in age group 15 to 50 years were included in this study. Retinoscopy and subjective refraction was done in individuals having mild to moderate refractive error. Then they were asked about their literacy level and occupation. Educated patients were grouped in Literate group and uneducated were grouped in Illiterate group. Literate group was further documented as formal education and religious education. Formal education was subdivided in matriculation level, intermediate level, graduation level and post-graduation level.

RESULTS: In this study 44% refractive error was observed in students. At graduation level myopia was more common refractive error as compare to hyperopia and astigmatism. Moreover, myopia was associated with higher literacy level.

CONCLUSION: It is concluded that refractive errors are associated with literacy level and among all refractive errors myopia is found to be strongly associated with educational level.

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