Evaluation of visual functions in advanced hypertensive patients.

Sidra Sajjal, Muhammad Azam Khan, Pariza Jameel, Nida Asghar


Purpose: To check the status of various visual functions (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, glare and visual fields) in people having hypertension for 10 to 15 years.

Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 people diagnosed as having hypertension for 10 to 15 years and presenting at Mayo Hospital Lahore was examined.  All the visual functions were measured. Visual acuity was measured using log MAR charts, color vision by Ishihara color plates, contrast sensitivity by Lea number contrast sensitivity plates, visual field by arc handheld perimeter, and glare by the patient's complaint.

Results: Records of 50 patients who were involved in our study were reviewed. Out of 50 patients, 18 were male and 32 were female and they were in age between 20-70 years. The distant visual acuity table showed Visual acuity of 0.00-0.50 log MAR in 20 patients, 0.6-1.00 log MAR in 19 patients and 1.1-1.5 log MAR in 11 patients. The near VA table showed that 1M-2M in 19 patients, 3M-6M in 13 patients and 8M-16M in 18 patients. The color vision tale showed that 1/12 CV in 20 patients, 4/12 in 16 patients, 8/12 in 7 patients and 12/12 in 5 patients in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity table showed that that 25% contrast sensitivity in 11 patients, 10% in 13 patients, 5% in 15 patients, 2.5% in 4 patients and 1.25% in 7 patients in right eye and in left eye  25% in 8 patients, 10% in 11 patients, 5% in 11 patients 2.5% in 10 patients and 1.25% in 10 patients. The visual field table showed that 25 patients had a normal visual field and 25 had constricted visual field in both eyes. Glare sensitivity table showed that 27 patients had a complaint of glare and 23 had no glare. The p-value for all the parameters was less than 0.05 which showed that hypertension is associated with disturbance in visual functions.

Conclusion: All the visual functions are affected to some extent by hypertension. Of these, color vision and contrast sensitivity are affected the most, while visual field and glare are affected in 50% of patients. Visual acuity is least affected,

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