Association of asthenopia, pre-presbyopia and refractive errors in workers involved in handcrafting

Mahar Safdar Ali Qasim, Kiran Shakeel, Saleem Ullah, Saba Akram


BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of handcrafting on different types of refractive errors and to check the relationship of asthenopia and pre-presbyopia with such work.

METHODS: One hundred individuals were selected for this study between 16 and 35 years of age. Data were collected by stratified sampling technique. The study was completed in two areas namely Hussain Agahi Bazaar, Multan and a village named Kot Qaisrani, Tehsil Taunsa, District Dera Ghazi Khan. Visual acuity, Retinoscopy, Torchlight examination, Ophthalmoscopy and Pencil push-up test were done for every person. A questionnaire was also filled with the information given by the person after an informed consent.

RESULTS: Total 100 patients, 50 male and 50 female were selected in this study aging 16-35 years to check for any eye strain, headache, the decrease in the near vision before 35-40 years and presence of any other refractive error. 70% had near visual acuity of N6, 17% had N8 and 13% were between N10-N12. They had a mean of 0.433 with an SD=0.71428 and variance = 0.51.  74% of participants in this study were emmetropes, 17% myopes and 9% hyperopes. Out of 70 which were N6, 40(57.1%) presented with eye strain and 44(62.8%) with a headache. Out of 17 people reading up to N8, 15(88.2%) had eye strain and 16(94.1%) had a headache and 13 people were N10-12, 9(69.2%) with eye strain and 12(92.3%) with a headache.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a weak relationship of refractive errors and pre-presbyopia but strong association of asthenopia in workers of handcrafting.

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