Ophthalmology Pakistan 2024-03-30T06:22:16+00:00 Principal COAVS Open Journal Systems Severity of Ocular Trauma Score at Presentation in Open Globe Injuries 2024-03-11T05:29:23+00:00 Mashal Bano Hira Wakil Yousaf Jamal Mahsood Muhammad Zia Ud Din Khalil <p><strong>Purpose: </strong></p> <p>To determine the pattern of ocular trauma and ocular trauma score in patients from general population.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong></p> <p>This cross-sectional study was conducted at Ophthalmology department of Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from July 2022 till April 2023. Ocular examination included best corrected visual acuity in LogMAR units, etiology of the trauma, presenting symptoms, and associated ocular complications with OGI. Raw points and Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) were calculated for each eye at the end.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>A total 98 eyes of 98 participants were included in this study. Mean age and presenting visual acuity of our participants were 19.01<u>+</u>14.5 years and 1.45<u>+</u>0.48 LogMAR units. Most were males 84 (85.7%) and 53 (54.1%) participants presented after 24 hours of the ocular trauma. Wood was the most common cause of ocular trauma followed by metal.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The patients usually present late and with bad OTS which can be the reasons for poor vision in long-term.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan Effect of 0.5% Oral Intake of Glucose on Tear Production 2024-01-01T20:38:57+00:00 Muhammad Abdal Muhammad Aish Qamar ur Rehman Ayesha Tasneem Faiza Tasneem <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine, how 0.5% oral glucose consumption affects the formation of tears</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> After ethical approval, this cross-sectional study involved 176 non-glycemic individuals (103 males and 73 females) with an average age of 23.7±2.70 years. Participants with normal body mass index (BMI) were included in the study, with an average BMI of 22.42kg/m2. After informed consent, tear production was measured at fasting and thirty, ninety and two hours minutes after intake of 0.5% glucose. Data was entered and analyzed in SPSS.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The mean tear production at fasting was found to be 13.88±5.18mm. After 30 minutes of oral intake of 0.5% glucose, the mean tear production remained at 13.88±5.18mm. However, after 60 minutes of oral intake of 0.5%glucose, the mean tear production decreased to 12.96±5.196mm. After 90 minutes of glucose intake, the mean tear production increased to 13.58±5.03mm, and after 120 minutes, it further increased to 15.54±5.09mm. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in tear production after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of oral intake of 0.5%glucose. However, after 90 minutes, the difference in tear production became insignificant. </p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan Effect of Dorzolamide-Timolol fixed dose combination on central Corneal Thickness in patients of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Versus Normal Tension Glaucoma 2023-12-13T08:14:44+00:00 Aliya Ramzan Saman Ali Ummara Rasheed <p><strong>PURPOSE:</strong></p> <p>To evaluate the effect of dorzolamide/timolol fixed dose combination on central corneal thickness in primary open-angle and normal tension glaucoma.</p> <p><strong>METHOD:</strong></p> <p>This retrospective cohort study was approved by the Ethical Review Board of College of Ophthalmology and Allied vision Sciences (1469/23) and was conducted at Diagnostic clinic Mayo Hospital, Lahore from March, 2023 to September, 2023. Sample size was calculated by a formula whose level of significance (????) was 5%, standard deviation (????) 30.9 and test values of population mean (µ̥) was 540. Using non-probability convenient sampling method total sample size was 80 patients of age group 30 to 60 which divided into normal tension and primary open angle glaucoma of 40 each. Patients with corneal edema, diabetes, and allergic to dorzolamide-timolol fixed dose combination were excluded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25.00. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and chi-square test were used for the significance of the study. Data p-value &lt;0.005 considered significant. All the tests were performed after patient’s informed consent. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured by Goldmann applanation tonometer and ultrasound Pachymeter respectively.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p> <p>IOP and CCT in right eye 16.17± 7.05 (p=0.000) and 545.50± 22.2 (p=0.098) respectively and of left eye 16.56± 7.00 (p=0.003) and 549.16± 20.0 (p=0.133) respectively. This illustrates significant difference in intraocular pressure after treatment in both eyes but insignificance difference in central corneal thickness.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong></p> <p>Dorzolamide-Timolol combination successfully reduces IOP as intended and leads to no statistically significant change in central corneal thickness.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan Assesment of Corneal Thickness in Type II Diabetic Patients Ageing between 40 to 60 Years 2024-03-01T17:30:44+00:00 Rashid Asghar Tahir Shaukat Barkat Islam Abdul Basit <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the corneal thickness of type 2 diabetic patients ageing between 40 to 60 years.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This was cross sectional study in nature and data was collected from tree tops hospital and university of Lahore. After informed consent, all patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in this study followed by measurement of corneal thickness. The data was collected regarding age, duration of diabetes, level of HbA1c test result and medications. When it came to entering and analyzing the data, IBM Spss version was employed. Pearson’s correlation test was applied to find the significance of data. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were total 104 patient with age ranges between 40 years to 60 years. In this research there were 58 persons who were suffering type 2 diabetes from 5 years (55.8%). There 18 and 18 (17.3%) patients were suffering from the diabetes for last 10 and 15 years respectively. Only 10 patients had diabetes for last 20 years. The difference in corneal thickness values between the subsections of patients with no DR, with NPDR and PDR was statistically non-significant (p = 0.810). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that duration of DM (r = 0.022, p = 0.809), HbA1c (r = 0.103, p = 0.251), and severity of DR (r = 0.022, p = 0.805) did not show any significant correlation with CCT.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong> As the age of the patient increases the central corneal thickness is affected by these factors. Which results in loss or decreased vision and many other problems.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan Association of Diabetes Mellitus II and Hypertension with Types of Cataract 2024-03-12T14:36:14+00:00 Aleena Nadeem Muhammad Hamza Najam Nimra Ayoub Nabila Zulfiqar Sara iqbal <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to determine the association of diabetes mellitus and hypertension with types of cataract.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>After ethical approval, this cross-sectional study involved 61 patients, age between 40 to 85 years who were advised cataract surgery with phacoemulsification at Department of Ophthalmology, Fatima Memorial Hospital. Proper informed consent was obtained from participants. Those who did not give consent were excluded. The type of cataract and the presence of two systemic diseases—hypertension and diabetes mellitus II—that have been identified as risk factors for the development of cataract were investigated in the patients. Data was entered and analysed in SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 61 patients, who were involved in this study, there were 26 (42.6%) males and 35 (57.4%) females. In this study the most presented systemic disease was combination of both hypertension and diabetes mellitus II and most occurring type was nuclear cataract. DM II had very low incidences in all groups. There was insignificant difference and association (p=0.784) between cataract (All types) and system diseases (Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus) in the age group 40-85 years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was no association of types of cataract with hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Cataract, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan Ophthalmic Nursing in Specialized Healthcare 2024-03-14T06:02:29+00:00 Abida Asghar Tehseena Akram Muhammad Shaheer <p>In health care settings, due to advancement in technologies, the expectations from every individual have increased over the last few years. Advance nursing educational programs &amp; trainings are developing competency of nurses in every specialized area. Consequently the nurses need to enhance practical skills to meet the expectations of the patient. Nurses have upgraded standard of nursing care both in community health &amp; hospital based health care settings. </p> <p>Specialized ophthalmic nurse plays significant role regarding promotion of eye health, preventive &amp; curative treatment of eye disease as well as for low vision services &amp; rehabilitation. In challenging situation to meet the growing needs of ophthalmic profession, modern ophthalmic nurse is frequently encountered with expectations to deal more patients, more swiftly by using specialized ophthalmic skills &amp; new technology to meet the goals regarding eye health and wellbeing of the patients. This advanced specialized skill enables ophthalmic nurses to expand their practices in different areas of ophthalmic care. Nurses are more vigilant to deal emergencies especially in areas where the resources are minimum and burden of patients. In tertiary eye hospitals nurses perform administrative duties very efficiently as well as clinical duties. An ophthalmic nurse can assess visually impaired patient. They also helps to meet the psychological or spiritual needs of the patient. They can educate and counsel patient which plays a significant role in increasing the awareness of visually impaired.</p> 2024-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan