Ophthalmology Pakistan https://www.ophthalmologypakistan.com/op/ojs3.3/index.php/ophth_pakistan_journal 46/2 Minhas Street, Paisa Akhbaar, Urdu Bazar, Lahore. en-US Ophthalmology Pakistan 2518-2110 Pharmacovigilance: Safeguarding Vision https://www.ophthalmologypakistan.com/op/ojs3.3/index.php/ophth_pakistan_journal/article/view/119 <p>Pharmacovigilance defined by the World Health Organization as 'the science and activities relating todetection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem' plays a key role in ensuring that patients receive safe drugs. Our knowledge of drug's adverse reactions can be increased by various means, including spontaneous reporting; intensive 1monitoring and database studies.Thalidomide was marketed in 1957 and was considered harmless for use in pregnancy by the 1manufacturer. However, its use during pregnancy led to development of abnormal fetal and limb 2 deformities in 46 countries world wide. The thalidomide tragedy served as a catalyst for the formation of Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) as the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring. UMC operates the technical and scientific aspects of the WHO' sworld wide 3 pharma covigilance network. Reports from adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are stored in a global database (VigiBase) and can be used by health professionals to evaluate the associations between various medications and associated ADRs. Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (DRAP), established Pakistan National Pharmacovigilance Centre (PNPC) in 2015, under the division of Pharmacy Services to provide a basic framework for the implementation of pharmacovigilance programme of Pakistan at provincial and national 4 level. National data (VigiFlow) is directly connected to WHO Global Database (VigiBase).</p> Asma Iqbal Muhammad Shaheer Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 14 1 1 2 10.62276/OphthalmolPak.14.01.119 Association of Visual Acuity with different level of Astigmatism in Paedriatic patients https://www.ophthalmologypakistan.com/op/ojs3.3/index.php/ophth_pakistan_journal/article/view/143 <p><strong> Purpose:</strong> This study was conducted to determine the association of visual acuity at different level of astigmatism in patients visiting Shalamar Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Ethical approval of this cross sectional study was obtained from Shalamar School of Allied Health, Lahore. Patients of either gender ranging from 6 to 16 years were included while those above 16 years were excluded. A detailed history of each patient was taken to rule out any existing pathology which can deteriorate the visual acuity of the patient which was followed by pen torch examination to grossly examine the anterior chamber of eye. Visual acuity was measured on Snellen chart which was followed by automated and subjective refraction by single examiner. The findings were recorded on a proforma. Data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 26 and Chi Square test was applied to check for statistical significance. P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> A total of 115 patients (54 females and 61 males) were recruited for this study from ages 6 to 16 years, with an average mean age standard deviation of 3.216 years. 73 patients out of 115 had with-the rule astigmatism with 63.5% whereas 32 patients had against-the-rule astigmatism with 27.8%. Oblique astigmatism was present in 10 patients with the least percentage i.e, 8.7%. Chi-square test, which is parametric test, was used for the statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concluded that there were significant results for variables (visual acuity, types of astigmatism) because p-value is less than 0.05 but there is insignificant results between variable (visual acuity, level of astigmatism) because there p-value is greater than 0.05.</p> Amina Ashraf Areej Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 14 1 3 7 10.62276/OphthalmolPak.14.01.143 Tear Film Insbility in type 1 diabetics https://www.ophthalmologypakistan.com/op/ojs3.3/index.php/ophth_pakistan_journal/article/view/127 <p><strong> Purpose:</strong> To assess the influence of type 1 diabetes on tear film and to quantify the vision problems and glycosylated hemoglobin link to diabetes mellitus in this study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross sectional study was conducted after obtaining ethical approval. Patients who were known to have diabetes mellitus for at least 5 years were included in study while those diagnosed with diabetes mellitus for less than 5 years were excluded. A self-designed Performa was used to gather the data that mainly included history of ocular and systemic disease, age, duration of diabetes, level of HbA1c test result, medications. Tear film was assessed with Schirmer strips instilled in both eye for five minutes with eyes closed. Later it was viewed using fluorescence strips after the topical anesthetic was given then studied using the cobalt blue filter on slit-lamps. When it came to entering and analyzing the data, we used IBM SPSS Version.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Patients with value of moderate HbA1c with percentage of 52.3% were higher than both mild and high values. There was significant relationship between HbA1c value and dry eye according to tear breakup time test with values severe are more than both who has values moderate and mild.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Type 1 diabetes mellitus and dry eyes are shown to be closely linked in this research. Tear producing layer is affected by the incidence of disease and the higher HbA1c level.</p> Ansa Andleeb Alishba Fatima Ayesha Farrukh Maryam Manzoor Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 14 1 8 12 10.62276/OphthalmolPak.14.01.127 Knowledge, attitude and perception of optometrist in Pakistan towards tele-optometry. https://www.ophthalmologypakistan.com/op/ojs3.3/index.php/ophth_pakistan_journal/article/view/78 <p><strong> Purpose:</strong> To Assess comprehensive insights into awareness, behaviors and perceptions of optometrists in Pakistan related to tele-optometry, with purpose of understanding their level of familiarity and their opinions about its effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was carried out at College of Ophthalmology and Allied Vision Sciences, Mayo Hospital Lahore from June 2023 to November 2023. The research protocol was approved by Ethical Review Board of College of Ophthalmology and Allied Vision Sceinces, Lahore (Ref# COAVS/1453:23). The size of obtained sample was 49, and calculated by using the following formula; n = z2 * p * (1 - p) / e2 .1 It included the registered optometrists of Pakistan, and used the convenient sampling technique. The questionnaire was formed on Google form and then link was shared through different social media apps, and informed consent was taken from every participant. The exclusion criteria for this study were nationality, clinical practice and language. P-value was calculated by using Mann Whitney U test. P-value &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The overall understanding of tele-optometry among optometrists in Pakistan was notably low and had no training how to implement into their practice. About 60% participants reported that they were aware of the platforms/software used in tele-optometry (p = 0.046). 93% participants thought that they could implement it in their practice (p = 0.019).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite a lack of extensive knowledge about tele-optometry in Pakistan, a positive attitude and favorable perceptions toward tele-optometry were prevalent.</p> Rimsha Liaqat Beenish Latif Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 14 1 13 18 10.62276/OphthalmolPak.14.01.78 Changes in Level of Steroacuity in Patients Having Different Types of Refractive Errors https://www.ophthalmologypakistan.com/op/ojs3.3/index.php/ophth_pakistan_journal/article/view/141 <p><strong> Purpose:</strong> To find out the frequency of stereoacuity in different refractive errors in patients visiting<br />ophthalmology department of The University of Lahore Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which recruited volunteers visiting department of ophthalmology at University of Lahore teaching hospital. After informed consent, he frequency of steroacuity level in all the participants were assessed using a proforma Steroacuity level was taken as normal (20 seconds of Arc), borderline (20-40 seconds of Arc) and reduced (above 40 seconds of Arc). The depth perception level among the patients of different types of refractive errors (Myopia, Hyperopia and Astigmatism), regardless of gender specific both male and female was examined with the age limit (15-35). SPSS 23 was employed for data analysis after the findings were recorded in proforma. Fried-man test was applied to find the statistical significance of data. P-value 0.05 was considered as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 145 people aged (15-35) years old, both genders (male, female) were included in the study. Fifty four (54) myopic participants out of 72, 34 astigmatic out of 55 and 12 hyperopic participants out of 18 had normal stereopsis. Ten (10) from 72 myopia participants, 11 from 55 astigmatism volunteers and 4 out of 18 hyperopic subjects had borderline steroacuity. Likewise, 8 out of 72 myopia patients, 10 out of 55 astigmatism patients and 2 out of 18 had a reduced Stereoacuity above 40 Arc. In overall comparison, 69.0 % were normal, 17.2% were borderline and 13.8% had reduced stereoacuity level with P value 0.0267.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study shows that stereopsis was significantly reduced in those having astigmatism than those with myopia and hyperopia.</p> Ambreen Ziarat Hamna Adrees Anwar ul Haq Hashmi Shanza Dastgir Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 14 1 19 23 10.62276/OphthalmolPak.14.01.141 Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Keratoplasty and Eye Donation in High Risk Occupations https://www.ophthalmologypakistan.com/op/ojs3.3/index.php/ophth_pakistan_journal/article/view/142 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To determine the attitude regarding corneal transplantation or eye donation among high-risk occupations.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Descriptive cross sectional design was used in this study. Non- probability purposive sampling technique was used. People with age group between 25 to 60 years of either gender were included. Mechanics, Auto Drivers, Tailor, and Welders were included. Age below 25 and above 60 years was excluded. After informed consent, Self-design questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was entered and analyzed in SPSS 25. Mann Whitney-U test was applied to find the significance of data. P value &lt; 0.05 was considered as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 64 participants (50.8%) heard about corneal transplantation or eye donation while 62 (49.2%) participants didn't hear about eye donation. Forty one (41 ) participants (11.1%) said that only those people can donate who haven't undergone cataract surgery. Eighty one (81) participants (64.3%) said that only more than 18 years old individuals can donate eyes. Forty Four (44) participants (34.9%) thought that blood group is a hurdle for donation of eye. P-value was 0.034 that is significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concluded that a large proportion of the population do not have proper knowledge regarding corneal transplantation and eye donation. The study reveals that high-risk occupation workers have low level of awareness and knowledge regarding corneal transplantation and eye donation.</p> Tahir Shaukat Abdul Basit Iqbal Arslan Ashraf Irfana Asad Rashida Riaz Copyright (c) 2024 Ophthalmology Pakistan 2024-02-26 2024-02-26 14 1 24 28 10.62276/OphthalmolPak.14.01.142