Comparative Effectiveness of different therapies for Convergence Insufficiency


  • Sara Sonum University of Faisalabad
  • Abeera Amir National University of Science and Technology
  • Amna Shed hospital, Karachi
  • Qurat ul Ain Munawar Memorial hospital, Chakwal
  • Marium Sanaullah Munawar Memorial hospital, Chakwal



Asthenopia, Convergence Insufficiency, Pencil Push Up, Near Point of Convergence


Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of different treatment options such as brock string, dot card, jump convergence and pencil push-up exercises for convergence insufficiency (CI).

Methodology: After ethical approval, this quasi experimental study was conducted at District Head Quarter (DHQ) Bhakkar, Thel University Bhakkar, schools and collages of Bhakkar and district Layyah by selecting 140 patients presenting with symptomatic convergence insufficiency through non-probability convenient sampling. After informed consent, Positive Fusional Vergence (PFV), CI Symptom Survey (CISS) and near point of convergence (NPC) were measured. Then randomly divide into four groups of 35 patients by non-probability purposive sampling. Each group received one of the chosen therapy for 3 consecutive months. All patients were examined and self-structure proforma was filled as baseline data on each follow-up of therapy. Data was analyzed by IBM SPSS version 23.

Results: After completion of three month of treatment, near point of convergence improved from mean 13.343 ±.219 to 8.757±.194; CI 95%: p<0.001 respectively in brock string, mean 13.486 ±.197 to 7.729 ±.169; CI 95%: p<0.001 in dot card exercise, in jump convergence mean 13.614 ±.214 to 9.057, ±.170; CI 95%: p<0.001    improvement of NPC occur and in pencil push-up 13.243 ±.208 to 8.329 ±.143; CI 95%: p<0.001.   

Conclusion: The dot card is most effective treatment to perform at home for CI, effective for achieving clinically significant improvements in signs and symptoms associated with CI in young adults.



How to Cite

Sonum, S., Amir, A., Amna, Qurat ul Ain, & Sanaullah, M. (2024). Comparative Effectiveness of different therapies for Convergence Insufficiency. Ophthalmology Pakistan, 14(3), 67–72.



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