Developing a disability inclusive model for low vision service


  • Tahira Razzaq
  • Madiha Nazly
  • Muhammad Suhail Sarwar
  • Muhammad Anwar Awan


Low vision, Visual Disorder, Rehabilitation


PURPOSE: To develop a disability inclusive framework or a model to ensure the provision of both clinical and rehabilitation components of management to the low vision persons. And to determine the impacts of low vision services on the quality of life and adjustment to visual loss.

METHOD: A Descriptive Cross-sectional study was done on 62 subjects by using a Non-probability convenient sampling method. The participants of both genders were included in this study and were of different age groups. A self-designed questionnaire was also used during this study. The informed consent form was also signed by every participant individually before starting the procedure. Duration of study was 3 months after approval of synopsis.The Ethical Review Board of College of Ophthalmology and Allied Vision Sciences also approved the whole Research Protocol.

RESULTS: Total 62 participants were included in this study. About 95% said that they feel difficulty to do things due to this vision problem. Almost 42% said that they have problems to read white boards in normal room illumination, 46.8% said that they don’t get information at the same time like other students get and 17.7% also told that their teachers didn’t support them in this regard. About 37% had confidence to make their own way to school and 64% had faced problems to participate in recreational and social activities. And 67.7% said that they have no confidence to move safely at night. More than 60% of the Families behavior was supporting towards their education. Almost 69.4% didn’t have independence to do their own work and more than 30% were also restricted to participate in the events. The care providers and doctors were encouraging and majority of the patients were getting proper attention. All of the questions results were significant (having p-value < 0.05) except two of them, in which people were uncomfortable roaming outside their homes and friends were letting them down for their special needs.

CONCLUSION: This article provided the clear perception and understanding for the development of a model or framework for low vision and rehabilitation services known as “Clinico-social model”. It included all the approaches to help LV Persons to overcome all the barriers that they are facing in their daily life and their rehabilitation to develop enough confidence in them to get independent. And this disability inclusive model(DIM) also helped to divert the attention of care providers along with different hospitals& organizations towards persons with visual disabilities.  And the approach of the persons with the visual impairment towards the LV services was seen less due to their exclusion from the society based on their disabilities.

KEYWORDS: Low vision, Visual Disorder, Rehabilitation.



How to Cite

Tahira Razzaq, Madiha Nazly, Muhammad Suhail Sarwar, & Muhammad Anwar Awan. (2022). Developing a disability inclusive model for low vision service. Ophthalmology Pakistan, 12(3), 17–22. Retrieved from



Original Articles